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Project Title: The effects of low energy availability (LEA) and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) on the health of adults and athletes 

You are invited to participate in a study entitled: The effects of low energy availability (LEA) and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) on the health of adults and athletes. The principal investigator for this is Greg Wright, as part of his PhD. The supervisor for this research study is Dr. Ifigenia Giannopoulou

All adults between the ages of 18 and 65 are invited to participate in this survey. 
You do not have to be an endurance athlete - all active and inactive individuals are welcome to participate. However, you must not take part in this study if you are currently receiving treatment (i.e., medication, counseling) for a clinical eating disorder or other mental health condition (i.e., depression, body dysmorphia).


There will be two populations under investigation. The two groups will be "Endurance Athletes" and "Active and Inactive Individuals." If you complete 4 or more endurance sessions per week for a total time greater than 5 hours, then you fall into the "Endurance Athlete Group." If you complete 3 or fewer endurance sessions per week, [you can participate in as many other forms of exercise as often as you want]) then you fall into the "Active and Inactive Individuals" group. 

The rate of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) risk factors ranges from 3 to 60% in the published literature (depending on the sport, type, and level of athlete and diagnostic tool). RED-S and low energy availability (LEA) have notable negative health and performance consequences. Therefore, more work is needed to fully understand these conditions and their causes to allow for optimal prevention and treatment strategies to be implemented. 

Typically, research has been conducted using higher-level athletes. RED-S and LEA are not as well known amongst more amateur athletic populations. Therefore, this study will contribute to the literature by offering a preliminary understanding of the prevalence of LEA and RED-S in amateur athletes - your input is imperative to this pursuit. This questionnaire is a combination of various existing validated questionnaires, which will take ~15 minutes of your time. From this, we hope to better inform:  

- Our understanding of the prevalence and symptoms of RED-S in endurance athletes, other active individuals, and the general population; 
- Understand the differences behind LEA and RED-S in males and females.

-  What is the relationship between the physiological and psychological disturbances associated with RED-S and LEA.

Upon completion of the questionnaires, there is the opportunity to undergo further testing. This includes: nutritional analysis via a 7-day diet and training diary; physiological tests to assess your hormones, body composition, and bone mineral density; exercise testing to assess your endurance and strength performance; interviews to gain further information regarding eating and exercise behaviours. These are optional extras. By providing your email at the end of the questionnaire, you will be sent more information regarding the specifics of these assessments. 

Overall, the results from this study will help to improve athlete health, availability, and performance, as well as to inform future research directions. 

Your answers will be handled with confidentiality and you can answer the entire survey anonymously. 

P.S.: This survey contains completion codes for and

I confirm I have read and understood either:

- The global participant information sheet ( (if you complete 3 or fewer endurance sessions per week (i.e., running, swimming, cycling), [you can participate in as many other forms of exercise as often as you want]); or

- The endurance athlete participant information sheet ( (if you complete 4 or more endurance sessions (i.e., running, swimming, cycling) per week for a total time greater than 5 hours [this can be from a combination of activities, or just from one domain).


If I have any questions or concerns, I understand that I can contact the principal investigator Greg Wright (, or the supervisor of this project, Dr. Ifigeneia Giannopoulou (


I agree to participate in this online survey, realising that I can withdraw my consent at any time (without adverse consequences). I agree that research data collected for the study may be published or may be provided to other researchers in a form that does not identify me in any way. I understand that data will be stored on OneDrive for 10 years before being destroyed in accordance with university policy.

By ticking the box below and completing this questionnaire I sign the informed consent and thus approve the study design and the anonymous use of my responses for the study purposes by the research team.